- All texts are constructions, meaning they are built by the author/creator. In these constructions, authors try to represent some aspect of the human experience.
- All texts represent the values of those that create them. These value messages are communicated to the audience (whether the audience knows this or not!).
- Each reader interprets texts differently. Sometimes, readers accept the message exactly as intended, while others reject the message.
- Media have special interests (commercial, ideological, political). Most media is created for profit!
- Each medium has its own language, style, form, techniques, conventions, and aesthetics